An interesting, but long, article. In short: after the fall of the Roman Empire there were so many separate powers that property rights essentially became guaranteed, because merchants could vote with their feet. Simultaneously, the church was generally outside of the state, and so rulers could not use religion to seize property, and Christianity emphasized that envy was a deadly sin, further preventing a lot of negative policies. All of this combined for strong property rights and laissez faire economics.

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